Vail Jazz Column: Brazilian music and jazz share DNA
Genetic ancestry testing is skyrocketing in popularity as more and more people get curious about their genealogy. Recently, there was a story in the news about Korean-American identical twin sisters that had been separated for adoption at birth. Thirty-three years later, they were reunited, and they confirmed their connection when each had their DNA tested by 23andMe. Stories like that don’t happen very often, but the connection between relatives is being discovered regularly now, and it is a common occurrence to discover the identity of second and third cousins through the testing.
In a way, the genealogy of jazz has been undergoing similar testing for years, not by geneticists, but instead by musicologists who have been examining various styles of music, trying to locate jazz’s “musical relatives.” At the heart of jazz, I’ll call it its musical DNA, are three distinctive “genes”: African rhythms; the blending of multiple music traditions, and improvisation.
Many musicologists have concluded that the festive and exuberant music known as choro (pronounced SHOH-roh), which began evolving around 1870 in Rio de Janeiro, is one such relative. Though jazz wouldn’t emerge in New Orleans until decades later, both forms of music share many similarities since they sprang from the same musical DNA.
Both were A), built upon a foundation of Afro-centric rhythms, B), nurtured in a cosmopolitan center where there was a meddling of cultures and multiple European musical influences and C), heavily rely upon improvisation.
Not unlike jazz in the U.S., choro was at first played by unschooled musicians from the underclasses. Its earthy roots was a main reason why it was regarded with contempt by the white and wealthy establishment. However, by the 1920s, choro was the popular music of Brazil at the same time the U.S. was fully swinging through the “Jazz Age.”
In essence, each music grew from the same musical DNA, but in different locales at different times. Each reflected the changing societies it inhabited, but grew into something new and different. And just as successive generations of jazz musicians have reinterpreted the so-called “standards” over time, so too, have choro players reinterpreted compositions from earlier times.
As a jazz fan, my first exposure to Brazilian music was bossa nova, the musical DNA of which is traceable to the Brazilian samba and American jazz. A close examination of the samba shows that its musical DNA is traceable to choro. If in a musical family tree, choro would be the father of the samba and one of the grandparents of bossa nova, with the other grandparent being American jazz. The great grandparent would be the rhythms of Africa.
While jazz and choro share much in common, there are, of course, many differences as well. One significant difference is choro’s prominent use of acoustic stringed instruments – mostly guitars, mandolins and related instruments. The Brazilian 7-string acoustic guitar often makes appearances. Brass and reed instruments are also featured, but no piano or drum set. Percussion sounds are played on the pandeiro, a Brazilian tambourine.
In jazz, the most common guitar played is a 6-string; however, there are a few jazz guitarists that play a 7-string. The extra string allows the guitarist to play a bass line and add depth to the music, but adds complexity that requires a high level of virtuosity if the player is going to master the instrument. In the hands of a passionate and brilliant player, the instrument can be played in a stunning and thrilling manner that defies description.
One such player is Yamandu Costa, considered to be one of the greatest Brazilian guitarists of all time. A remarkable interpreter of choro, samba and the music of Brazil, Yamandu will be in Vail performing with his trio Wednesday, July 10 at the Sonnenalp Hotel and Thursday, July 10 at the Jazz Tent in Lionshead.
Howard Stone is the Founder and Artistic Director of Vail Jazz, the presenter of the annual Vail Jazz Festival. For more information and a schedule of summer events, visit vailjazz.org.
See something new at the 16th annual Vail Film Festival, screening over 40 films Thursday to Sunday.